Diabetes is a life changing chronic ailment that occurs when the body loses its ability for processing blood glucose sugar levels in the body. As of last received statistics, more than 425 million people the world over in the age group of 18 to 45 years and above are suffering from various kinds of diabetes.
There are 3 kinds of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes
This ailment arises when the pancreas are unable to produce the hormone insulin in the human body. Insulin helps to process the blood glucose in the human body. Patients suffering from Type 1 diabetes require a daily intake of artificial insulin for their daily existence because they are insulin dependent.
- Type 2 diabetes
This is the most common occurrence of diabetes ailment. Type 2 diabetes happens when the body does produce insulin but it is not effective or sufficient enough for the cells to utilize in the body. There are many reasons for this problem on which we will expound further in this article.
- Gestational diabetes
This type arises normally during pregnancy in women when the body undergoes hormonal changes and becomes less insulin sensitive. Though this is not a common feature in all women, it resolves post pregnancy.
Diabetes needs to be monitored by the patient suffering from it; otherwise it can lead to severe complications in the human body. Diabetes is considered a slow killer and is known to attack 6 major organs of the body with deadly effect such as:
- Brain – can lead to full or partial paralysis of the body
- Heart – stroke
- Kidney – kidney failure, water retention & impaired bladder functions
- Eyes – difficulty in seeing or complete loss of sight
- Liver – complications
- Sex organs – inability or lack of sexual responses in the body.
Though diabetes is normally noted in older adults, but teenagers and even children are its targets due to irregular diet, absence of physical exercise and activity and obesity.
Major risk factors of Type 2 diabetes:
- Hereditary history of diabetes mellitus
- Unhealthy diet regimen
- High blood pressure
- Absence of Physical activity
- Advancing age
- Impaired Glucose Tolerance
- Lack of nutrition during pregnancy
- Past history of gestational diabetes during pregnancy
Indicators of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes are nearly similar such as:
- Frequency in urine especially at night
- Excessive Thirst
- Dry mouth
- Tiredness, weakness, lack of energy
- Slow healing of cuts, bruises and wounds
- Numb, tingling feeling in hands and feet
- Blurred vision
- Persistent skin infections
- Incessant irritation & confusion
- Difficulty in cognitive functions
These indications can be mild in pre-diabetes (borderline diabetic patients) and Type 2 diabetes patients and may be present in them for years before they actually get diagnosed for it.
Type 2 diabetes patients suffer from improper functioning of insulin levels in the human body. Normal blood sugar levels in healthy humans range from 70 – 130 mg/dl. Type 2 Diabetes can be further classified into 2 segments:
These patients have chronically high blood sugar levels. Hyperglycemia sets in gradually and over a period of time. Over eating; low insulin levels, hypertension, stress and drug side effects are some of its causes. This can lead to infertility in both males and females, nerve damage, losing consciousness, coma and excessive urinary complaints.
These are patients that suffer with low blood sugar levels. Hypoglycemia sets in all of a sudden due to low or no intake of food; excessive insulin intake; excessive exercise leading to high sweating; etc. It can affect the eyes, kidneys and lead to convulsions, fits and distorted cognitive functions.
Managing Type 2 Diabetes Disorder
If you feel that you are experiencing any of the above symptoms, it is best advised to visit a doctor and get your body tested well before in advance before diabetes plays havoc with your life and living lifestyle.
If the doctor confirms that you are indeed Type 2 diabetic, he will advise you to undergo lifestyle changes to delay the harmful effects of diabetes.
- Keeping a healthy mind & body, undertaking regular exercises & physical activity such as walking, jogging, aerobics, swimming, cycling, etc.;
- Eating a well-balanced diet containing fresh & nutritious fruits and vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, low-fat dairy products & healthy fats and nuts;
- Restrain yourself from harmful sugary foods & fruits;
- Cutting down on alcohol and tobacco consumption – preferably a drink or two for males; half a drink for females, may well figure on your bucket list.
- Checking out for signs related to weakness, dizziness, excessive sweating and confused state of mind
- Weight reduction – from fat to fit is the mantra for Type 2 diabetes patients.
Oral medication is given to patients to be taken before food intake to regulate the level of insulin in the body.
This is generally prescribed for type 2 diabetes patients in pill or liquid form. It helps to lower blood sugar levels and allow insulin to work with better effect. It also helps in reducing obesity levels in patients. Patients having a healthy weight are less prone to the effect of diabetes.
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are administered to patients ailing from a pertinent risk of heart failure and cardiovascular disease. Side effects are – ketoacidosis; & urinary and genital infections.
GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) Receptor Agonists
It is an injectable drug that increases the amount of insulin the body produces and decreases the amount of glucose that enters the bloodstream. It can be used individually or with metformin. Side effects are- loss of appetite, nausea and gastrointestinal problems.
Self-monitoring of blood glucose sugar levels is essential for managing diabetes mellitus. It is also effective for charting out meal charts, exercise regime and intake time of medication and insulin (not for Type 2 diabetics). You can buy a blood sugar monitoring device along with test strips and lancers to regularly check blood sugar levels. You can also buy urine test sticks and check urine samples for blood sugar if your urine frequency gets a sudden upsurge.
Regularly monitoring your blood sugar levels and regulating glucose intake can help patients overcoming harmful complications of type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetics need to regulate their insulin intake and check on their sugar levels.
If you feel you have the symptoms of diabetes, don’t waste precious time. Go visit your doctor.